Writing a Research Paper


Where should you begin?
Writing the research paper is not a simple task, but one that is quite manageable as long as you develop a plan and stick to it. Your plan should start with the creation of a realistic time-line, detailing all your researching, pre-writing, writing and proofreading activities. By having a time management plan in place, you will know exactly when you have to begin each task and how long you have for that task, thus eliminating that last minute rush just before the paper is due. Check your timeline periodically to see if you are adhering to your plan. Make adjustments as you progress through the research and writing stages.


What is a Research Paper?

Students are often asked to write papers based on the work of others rather than just their own experience.These papers require the use of primar yand/or secondary research. According to the fifth edition of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, “Primary research is the study of a subject through firsthand observation and investigation, such as analyzing a literary or historical text, a film, or a performance; conducting a survey or an interview; or carrying out a laboratoryexperiment. Primary sources include statistical data, historical documents, andworks of literature or art. Secondary research is the examination of studies thatother researchers have made of a subject. Examples of secondary sources are books and articles about political issues, historical events, scientific debates, or literary works.”

To avoid plagiarism, primary and/or secondary research requires parenthetical documentation and a “Works Cited” page.Any topic of interest can be used for a research-based paper. However, the narrowed topic must meet three criteria:

1. The paper must deal with a significant issue.

2. The audience must gain more knowledge/insight from the informationprovided. The regurgitation of already known information is notsufficient

.3. Research papers analyze an issue, defend a position, or explain somecomplexity. Many research papers will accomplish all three purposes


Discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Re searchable Topic:

Try to find a topic that truly interests you
Try writing your way to a topic
Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topic
Pose your topic as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved


Pointers to start: 

The steps to begin a research paper are similar to those of any other paper.

1. Make sure the criteria for the assignment is clear.

2. Choose a suitable subject if the option is available. Then narrow the subject to a topic.

3. Read about the topic. Become familiar with it.

4. Develop a preliminary outline or a series of research questions that reflects what needs to be discovered about the topic. It can be revised at any time during the process.

5. Begin to take notes. Use of index cards (4×6) or note sheets is recommended. See the Appendix for formats.

6. Write a first draft. Evaluate the information. Is the research complete? Remember to use peer editors

.7. Revise the first draft. Make any necessary changes based on the evaluation of the first draft. Begin addressing the issues of style and mechanics.

8. Write a second draft. Pay close attention to the parts of the paper. Is the introduction clear?

Is the body well developed with sufficient supporting evidence? Have authorities been introduced properly in the text?

Has appropriate documentation been provided?  Is the tense appropriate and consistent?

Is the voice clear? Does the conclusion follow from the body? Does it provide the reader with a sense of closure?

9. Organize the other parts of the paper. Pay special attention to the format requirements.

10. Prepare the final copy.



Plagiarism and Quotations 

When citing work, not only do you need a Works Cited page, but you need to quote within your paper 

To use MLA quotations: ◦ “quote” (Author, page number).

Quoting is easy and only takes minutes, use it to avoid getting expelled.

Using a submission checklist –

Using a submission checklist ensures that the paper is ready for submission. Be sure you have included all the necessary paper elements and have followed the stylistic guidelines.

1. Does your Title Page include title, author (your name), course, and date?
2. Are the page margins 1″ on all sides of the paper?
3. Are the pages numbered and double-spaced throughout?
4. Are punctuation and typing rules followed?
5. Have you avoided plagiarism by referencing all sources?
6. Does the Reference or Works Cited page follow strict style guidelines?
7. Are Appendices labeled and numbered properly?

To summarize:

1) Choose the Right Research Topic: Neither the research topic should be too long nor too short. It should be specific. You should able to get ample information on it to present your research paper. So start by choosing a topic in which you are really interested in.

2) Gather Information: Information can be gathered from variety of sources. You can use Books, Magazines, Encyclopedias, Internet etc. and can conduct interviews, surveys also.

3) Start Your Research: Jot down your main points. Look out for recent and reliable information. Recollect all of your thoughts and start writing a research paper.

4) Make a Outline of the Research : Put your all relevant thoughts in a logical order i.e organize your research paper in an appropriate manner starting from the stating of the topic, including thesis and conclusion at the end.

5) Make a Body of Your Research paper: Once you have an outline of the research you will able to link your views and evidences with the help of sentences, paragraphs, visuals, sounds or a combination of any of these. Put all your points in the order they will appear in the project. If you find that there is not enough information while writing your research paper you can always collect more relevant information.

6) Revise Your Paper: Check for grammar mistakes, spelling problems. Make sure that your ideas explained clearly.

7) Make a Final Draft: It should include all: introduction, supporting evidences with a logical conclusion.

8 ) Prepare a Bibliography: List all the sources from which you collected information for the paper.

9) Create a Title Page & Table of Contents: Title page should include some standard information like your name, topic of the research, your Mentor’s name. Table of contents should include topics, sub topics and the page no.s should be stated on which each is explained in your research paper.

10) Evaluate your Work:Make sure that you have completed all parts with overall neatness and put them into correct order without missing anything. Any borrowed material is properly acknowledged. Finally submit your paper on time.



Sources: Various:  scholarship-positions.com
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Nonverbal Communication


What is Nonverbal Communication?

Overall, Nonverbal Communication is defined as the process of using wordless messages to generate meaning.

The use of Nonverbal Communication can create a whole new meaning to a message.

Sometimes, it takes Nonverbal Communication to relay a message in order to communicate it in a more understanding way.


Why Is Nonverbal Communication Important?

The usage of Nonverbal Communication can clarify even the toughest messages to understand.

When speaking with a person, it makes a difference to see them and understand the way that they are feeling

based not only through their words, but also through their gestures, expressions, and all characteristics

that fit into the Nonverbal Communication category. I

n addition, nonverbal cues can sometimes be more meaningful than words themselves.

However, when put together, a message is then complete.

Nonverbal Communication completes communication as a whole.


The Forms of Nonverbal Communication:


Space involves the concept of Proxemics,  (meaning the study of space and distance).

There are different forms of space used for different times, places, and situations that communication takes place.

  • Intimate, Personal, Social and Public distances make up the concept of space.Intimate distances are those of 18 in. and used by those who are closest to you.
  • Personal distances are often 18 in. to 4 ft. This distance is common for casual conversation.
  • Social distances range from 4 ft. to 12 ft. and are often used in less personal situations such as those in the workplace
  • Finally, there are Public distances. These distances exceed 12 ft. and is often used for situations involving public speaking or lecturing. This distance is used to reach mass numbers of individuals at a non-intimate level.Image

Facial expressions are a very common type of nonverbal communication.Nonverbal communication is communicating without the use of words or sounds.Some examples would be smiling to indicate happiness, a frown to indicate sadness, and a furrowed brow to indicate puzzlement or perhaps anger. There are other forms of this as well.You can hug someone to express joy, or yawn to express boredom or tiredness.Sometimes you may not even realize you are projecting these feelings as you may do them involuntarily.


Silence : As a form of Non verbal communication
“We cannot not Communicate”


Oculesics or Eye Behavior

The eyes are frequently referred to as the “windows to the soul” since they are capable of revealing a great deal about what a person if feeling or thinking. As you engage in conversation with another person, taking note of eye movements is a natural and important part of the communication process. Some common things you may note is whether people are making direct eye contact or averting their gaze, how much they are blinking, or if their pupils are dilated.

When evaluating body language, pay attention to the follow eye signals:

  • Eye gaze

When a person looks directly into your eyes when having a conversion, it indicates that they are interested and paying attention. However, prolonged eye contact can feel threatening. On the other hand, breaking eye contact and frequently looking away may indicate that the person is distracted, uncomfortable, or trying to conceal his or her real feelings.

  • Blinking

Blinking is natural, but you should also pay attention to whether a person is blinking too much or too little. People often blink more rapidly when they are feeling distressed or uncomfortable. Infrequent blinking may indicate that a person is intentionally trying to control his or her eye movements. For example, a poker player might blink less frequently because he is purposely trying to appear unexcited about the hand he was dealt.

  • Pupil size

One of the most subtle cues that eyes provide is through the size of the pupils. While light levels in the environment control pupil dilation, sometimes emotions can also cause small changes in pupil size. For example, you may have heard the phase “bedroom eyes” used to describe the look someone gives when they are attracted to another person.


Other Forms of Non Verbal Communication



Touching or Haptics :

This is also called  Tactile Communication, which is the use of touch within communication. As with any other form of nonverbal cues, there is a right and a wrong situation for touching. With family members whom you are close to, you may hug or hold their hand when trying to relay a message to them. However, in the workplace, people are often clear of tactile communication unless paired with business gestures such as a hand shake.


Haptic communication is a form of nonverbal communication and the way by which people and other animals communicate via touching. Touch, or the haptic sense, is extremely important for humans; as well as providing information about surfaces and textures it is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships, and vital in conveying physical intimacy.

There are six different kinds of “touch”. These include: positive, playful, control, ritualistic, task-related and unintentional. It can be both sexual (kissing is one such example that is sometimes sexual) and platonic (such as hugging or tickling). Touch is the earliest sense to develop in the fetus. The development of an infant’s haptic senses and how it relates to the development of the other senses such as vision has been the target of much research. Human babies have been observed to have enormous difficulty surviving if they do not possess a sense of touch, even if they retain sight and hearing. Babies who can perceive through touch, even without sight and hearing, tend to fare much better.


Chronemics:  Refers to nonverbal communication of time.



Paralanguage is a component of meta-communication that may modify or nuance meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation etc. It is sometimes defined as relating to nonphonemic properties only. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously. The study of paralanguage is known as paralinguistics.
It refers on how you say your intended meanings and not what you say.

Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.


Kinesics or Body Movement

All movements of the body have meaning (i.e. are not accidental), and that these non-verbal forms of language (or paralanguage) have a grammar that can be analyzed in similar terms to spoken language. Thus, a “kineme” is “similar to a phoneme because it consists of a group of movements which are not identical, but which may be used interchangeably without affecting social meaning”.



Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.

Making the most of your body language

Communicating with someone close does not only involve talking and listening.

You communicate your love for your partner or spouse nonverbally with your body, by:

  • making and holding eye contact
  • holding hands
  • smiling, laughing
  • winking
  • ouching, stroking, cuddling, embracing
  • kissing

Sources: psychology.com
professional counselling.com

Communication Models


A. What is a Model?
1. Mortensen: “In the broadest sense, a model is a systematic representation of an object or event in idealized and abstract form. Models are somewhat arbitrary by their nature. The act of abstracting eliminates certain details to focus on essential factors. . . . The key to the usefulness of a model is the degree to which it conforms–in point-by-point correspondence–to the underlying determinants of communicative behavior.”
2. “Communication models are merely pictures; they’re even distorting pictures, because they stop or freeze an essentially dynamic interactive or transactive process into a static picture.”
3. Models are metaphors. They allow us to see one thing in terms of another.
B. The Advantages of Models
1. They should allow us to ask questions.
Mortensen: “A good model is useful, then, in providing both general perspective and particular vantage points from which to ask questions and to interpret the raw stuff of observation. The more complex the subject matter—the more amorphous and elusive the natural boundaries—the greater are the potential rewards of model building.”
2. They should clarify complexity.
Models also clarify the structure of complex events. They do this, as Chapanis (1961) noted, by reducing complexity to simpler, more familiar terms. . . Thus, the aim of a model is not to ignore complexity or to explain it away, but rather to give it order and coherence.
3. They should lead us to new discoveries-most important, according to Mortensen.
At another level models have heuristic value; that is, they provide new ways to conceive of hypothetical ideas and relationships. This may well be their most important function. With the aid of a good model, suddenly we are jarred from conventional modes of thought. . . . Ideally, any model, even when studied casually, should offer new insights and culminate in what can only be described as an “Aha!” experience.

Classical Communication Models


1. Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric. Ehninger, Gronbeck and Monroe: One of the earliest definitions of communication came from the Greek philosopher-teacher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).
a. “Rhetoric” is “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” (Rhetoric 1335b).
b. Aristotle’s speaker-centered model received perhaps its fullest development in the hands of Roman educator Quintilian (ca. 35-95 A.D.), whose Institutio Oratoria was filled with advice on the full training of a “good” speaker-statesman.

Early Linear Models
1. The Shannon-Weaver Mathematical Model, 1949
a. Background
i. Claude Shannon, an engineer for the Bell Telephone Company, designed the most influential of all early communication models. His goal was to formulate a theory to guide the efforts of engineers in finding the most efficient way of transmitting electrical signals from one location to another (Shannon and Weaver, 1949). Later Shannon introduced a mechanism in the receiver which corrected for differences between the transmitted and received signal; this monitoring or correcting mechanism was the forerunner of the now widely used concept of feedback (information which a communicator gains from others in response to his own verbal behavior).


b. Strengths
i. This model, or a variation on it, is the most common communication model used in low-level communication texts.
ii. Significant development. “Within a decade a host of other disciplines—many in the behavioral sciences—adapted it to countless interpersonal situations, often distorting it or making exaggerated claims for its use.”
iii. “Taken as an approximation of the process of human communication.”

The concepts of this model became staples in communication research
1.) Entropy-the measure of uncertainty in a system. “Uncertainty or entropy increases in exact proportion to the number of messages from which the source has to choose. In the simple matter of flipping a coin, entropy is low because the destination knows the probability of a coin’s turning up either heads or tails. In the case of a two-headed coin, there can be neither any freedom of choice nor any reduction in uncertainty so long as the destination knows exactly what the outcome must be. In other words, the value of a specific bit of information depends on the probability that it will occur. In general, the informative value of an item in a message decreases in exact proportion to the likelihood of its occurrence.”
2.) Redundancy-the degree to which information is not unique in the system. “Those items in a message that add no new information are redundant. Perfect redundancy is equal to total repetition and is found in pure form only in machines. In human beings, the very act of repetition changes, in some minute way, the meaning or the message and the larger social significance of the event. Zero redundancy creates sheer unpredictability, for there is no way of knowing what items in a sequence will come next. As a rule, no message can reach maximum efficiency unless it contains a balance between the unexpected and the predictable, between what the receiver must have underscored to acquire understanding and what can be deleted as extraneous.”
3.) Noise-the measure of information not related to the message. “Any additional signal that interferes with the reception of information is noise. In electrical apparatus noise comes only from within the system, whereas in human activity it may occur quite apart from the act of transmission and reception. Interference may result, for example, from background noise in the immediate surroundings, from noisy channels (a crackling microphone), from the organization and semantic aspects of the message (syntactical and semantical noise), or from psychological interference with encoding and decoding. Noise need not be considered a detriment unless it produces a significant interference with the reception of the message. Even when the disturbance is substantial, the strength of the signal or the rate of redundancy may be increased to restore efficiency.”
4.) Channel Capacity-the measure of the maximum amount of information a channel can carry. “The battle against uncertainty depends upon the number of alternative possibilities the message eliminates. Suppose you wanted to know where a given checker was located on a checkerboard. If you start by asking if it is located in the first black square at the extreme left of the second row from the top and find the answer to be no, sixty-three possibilities remain-a high level of uncertainty. On the other hand, if you first ask whether it falls on any square at the top half of the board, the alternative will be reduced by half regardless of the answer. By following the first strategy it could be necessary to ask up to sixty-three questions (inefficient indeed!); but by consistently halving the remaining possibilities, you will obtain the right answer in no more than six tries.”

2. Berlo’s S-M-C-R, 1960
a. Background
i. Ehninger, Gronbeck and Monroe: “The simplest and most influential message-centered model of our time came from David Berlo (Simplified from David K. Berlo, The Process of Communication (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1960)):”
ii. Essentially an adaptation of the Shannon-Weaver model.


The berlo’s model follows the smcr model this model is not specific to any particular communication.

Berlo’s model lives a number of factors under each of the elements :

Source: The source is were the message originates.

Communication skills – It is the individual’s skill to communicate (ability to read, write, speak, listen etc…)

Attitudes – The attitude towards the audience, subject and towards one self for e.g. for the student the attitude is to learn more and for teachers wants to help teach.

Knowledge- The knowledge about the subject one is going to communicate for e.g. whatever the teacher communicates in the class about the subject so having knowledge in what you are communicating.

Note: It is not talking about the general knowledge it is all about the knowledge of the subject, so it is the familiarity of what you are communicating.

Social system – The Social system includes the various aspects in society like values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of society. It is were the communication takes place.

For e.g. class room differs from country to country like behaviors, how we communicate etc.

Note: We can communicate only to the extent that the social system allows, when we communicate take social system into account.

Culture: Culture of the particular society also comes under social system.

All to this model, only if you have the above in the proper or adequate proportion v can communicate.

Encoder: The sender of the message (message originates) is referred as encoder, so the source is encoding the message here.


Content – The beginning to the end of a message comprises its content for e.g. From beginning to end whatever the class teacher speaks in the class is the content of the message.

Elements – It includes various things like language, gestures, body language etc, so these are all the elements of the particular message. Content is accompanied by some elements.

Treatment – It refers to the packing of the message. The way in which the message is conveyed or the way in which the message is passed on or deliver it.

Note: When it is too much treatment also the communication will not happen properly.

Structure- The structure of the message how it is arranged, the way you structure the message into various parts.

Note: Message is the same but if the structure is not properly arranged then the message will not get to the receiver.

Code- The code of the message means how it is sent in what form it could be e.g. language, body language, gestures, music and even culture is a code. Through this you get/give the message or through which the communication takes place or being reached.

Note: Only when the code is proper, the message will be clear, improper use may lead to misinterpretation.

Channel- It is nothing but the five senses through this only we do. The following are the five senses which we use

Whatever communication we do it is there either of these channels.

Hearing: The use of ears to get the message for e.g. oral messages, interpersonal etc.

Seeing: Visual channels for e.g. TV can be seen and the message is delivered.

Touching: The sense of touch can be used as a channel to communicate for e.g. we touch and buy food, hugging etc.

Smelling: Smell also can be a channel to communicate for e.g. perfumes, food, charred smell communicates something is burning, we can find out about which food is being cooked etc.

Tasting : The tongue also can be used to decipher e.g. Food can be tasted and communication can happen.

Note: Despite not mentioning a medium we need to assume that as communication is taking place channels can be any of the 5 senses or combination.

Decoder : Who receives the message and decodes it is referred to as decoder.

Receiver: The receiver needs to have all the thinks like the source.

This model believes that for an effective communication to take place the source and the receiver needs to be in the same level, only if the source and receiver are on the same level communication will happen or take place properly. So source and receiver should be similar

For e.g. Communication skills on source side is good then the receiver should equally have good listening skills.

We cannot say the entire message passed doesn’t reaches the receiver has it is because the receiver may not good in listening, so only for the effective communication the source and the receiver to be in the same level.

Note: Self image differs from person to person, for communicating the person should consider the receiver. Keep the receiver in mind, speak accordingly and give them what they need.

Criticism of berlo’s smcr model of communication:

No feedback / don’t know about the effect
Does not mention barriers to communication
No room for noise
Complex model
It is a linear model of communication
Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life
Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc).

3. Schramm’s Interactive Model, 1954
a. Background
Wilbur Schramm (1954) was one of the first to alter the mathematical model of Shannon and Weaver. He conceived of decoding and encoding as activities maintained simultaneously by sender and receiver; he also made provisions for a two-way interchange of messages. Notice also the inclusion of an “interpreter” as an abstract representation of the problem of meaning.
(From Wilbur Schramm, “How Communication Works,” in The Process and Effects of Communication, ed. Wilbur Schramm (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1954), pp. 3-26):


Non-linear Models
1. Dance’s Helical Spiral, 1967
a. Background
i. Depicts communication as a dynamic process. Mortensen: “The helix represents the way communication evolves in an individual from his birth to the existing moment.”
ii. Dance: “At any and all times, the helix gives geometrical testimony to the concept that communication while moving forward is at the same moment coming back upon itself and being affected by its past behavior, for the coming curve of the helix is fundamentally affected by the curve from which it emerges. Yet, even though slowly, the helix can gradually free itself from its lower-level distortions. The communication process, like the helix, is constantly moving forward and yet is always to some degree dependent upon the past, which informs the present and the future. The helical communication model offers a flexible communication process” [p. 296].


The helix implies that communication is continuous, unrepeatable, additive, and accumulative; that is, each phase of activity depends upon present forces at work as they are defined by all that has occurred before. All experience contributes to the shape of the unfolding moment; there is no break in the action, no fixed beginning, no pure redundancy, no closure. All communicative experience is the product of learned, nonrepeatable events which are defined in ways the organism develops to be self-consistent and socially meaningful. In short, the helix underscores the integrated aspects of all human communication as an evolving process that is always turned inward in ways that permit learning, growth, and discovery.



The Communication Process

Understanding the Nature of Oral Communication:

ImageDefining Communication

The word communication is derived from the Latin terms cum munis [to make common] and communicare [to share]. Hence, communication is defined as the exchange of information, thoughts, ideas, feeling and the like. Because of its complexity, scholars and experts cast various definitions of communication. Griffin (2006) says that there are around more than 120 definitions as applied in operationalizing the concept of communication.

Communication is any process in which people share information, ideas, and feelings to construct meaning, establish relations and build understanding. It is a meaningful exchange that involves not only the spoken and written word, but also body language, personal mannerisms and style, the physical environment – anything that adds meaning to a message (Hybels & Weaver, 1998). This process takes place through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages (Brooks & Heath, 1993).

Communication is nature to humans. We communicate because it is nature to our ability as feeling, thinking and socializing creatures. In our daily lives we always engage in various forms of communication. Our very existence and our relationships depend heavily on how we are able to communicate what we feel and think, yet we often overlook the importance of understanding communication because it is too common to us.

Looking at Communication as a Process

Communication takes place, everywhere at anytime. It changes in various situations and affects change among participants as the process takes place. Process implies dynamics and change. It implies parts interacting and influencing each other so as to function as a whole. Brooks and Heath posit that when we accept the concept of process, we view communication events and relationships as dynamic, systematic, transactional, adaptive, and continuous:

Communication is dynamic – it is not static. It is not fixed but always changing. As it deals with change of behavior it changes constantly.
Communication is systematic – a simple speech communication occurs within a larger system. It is a system itself composed of interrelated and interdependent elements working together to achieve a desired outcome.
Communication is transactional – the essence of the term transaction is relationship. Included in the transactional characteristic of communication is the fact that each communication event is unique combination of people, messages, and situation that operate to achieve some definite purpose.
Communication is adaptive – communication takes place with an intention to achieve some outcome. In this process it must adapt to change. Thus, communication must pay attention to the other person, to the topic, to the physical surroundings, to motives and needs, and to other elements that we will study in this text. The ability to adjust and adapt to changing situation is a characteristic of effective communication.
Communication is continuous – it has no beginning and no end. We can consider communication as a product of a previous communication event that proceeds to another communication situation.

The study of oral communication considers the process as essential to facilitate understanding between the speaker and the audience. Thus, communication is viewed as the process of understanding and sharing meaning consists of activities of exchange and sets of behavior that applies in the perception, interpretation, and comprehension of meaning of the verbal and non-verbal behavior of individuals (Pearson & Nelson, 2000). Therefore, oral communication is understood as that dynamic and systematic process of sharing meaning and understanding meaning through verbal and non-verbal exchange between individuals in interaction within a given context.


Elements of the Communication Process

Various elements work together to achieve a desired outcome as communication takes place. The basic components or parts of the communication system are: the communicators (sender and receiver), message channel, feedback, noise, situation, and the interdependence of all the elements in the process.  By that they are interrelated and work systematically.


The source of the communication transaction is the originator of the message. Also known as the sender of information, the source initiates the communication process. In speech communication, we can identify the source to be the speaker, the one delivering the message. In daily life situations we are all sources of information as we relate to others and speak our ideas to them. We are both a source of message, consciously and unconsciously.


In the simplest sense, a message may be thought of as an idea, concept, emotion, desire, or feeling that a person desires to share with another human being. A message may be in verbal or non-verbal codes. The purpose of a message is to evoke meaning in another person. Some messages are intentional some are not.


A channel is the means by which a message moves from a person to another. The channel is the medium or vehicle by which we are able to transmit the message to the recipient. The means we use to communicate is the channel. The country’s president to deliver his message to his fellowmen may speak face to face with an audience, via the broadcast media or via print. Language is the basic medium of communication available to man.


The receiver gets the message channeled by the source of information. In a one way communication process, he is in the other end. But in a dynamic communication process the receiver may start to share his ideas and hence become also a source of information for the originator of the message. Listeners and audience are receivers of information. In a classroom situation, the students spend a lot of time as receivers of information.


Feedback is that integral part of the human communication process that allows the speaker to monitor the process and to evaluate the success of an attempt to get the desired response from the receiver. Also called “return signals,” it has a regulatory effect upon the speaker since the speaker must adjust to the feedback responses in order to be successful. In a public communication situation, the response of acceptance of the audience with their applause may be considered a feedback.


Noise may occur anywhere along the communication line, and it may be physical, physiological, or psychological in nature. Noise is any interference in the communication process. Annoying vocal habits of the speaker may interfere in the transmission of his verbal signals. Noise as a barrier may originate from the source or the receiver, from the channel used in sending the message, or outside of the source and receiver’s control. The poor listening of the audience and their unnecessary actions may also interfere in the communication process.


Communication does not take place in a vacuum. Between communicators, the process takes place in a particular communication situation where the identifiable elements of the process work in a dynamic interrelation. This situation is referred to as the context – the when and where of a communication event. Communication contexts vary depending on the need, purpose, number of communicators and the ways exchange is taking place. Communication can be intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational, cultural, public or mediated.

Knowing the elements of communication leads to a more meaningful understanding of the processes that make it work. We communicate and we know it is important for us. To communicate effectively, we need to have an understanding of how these elements work together in a process.


Brooks, W.D. & Heath, R.W. (1993). Speech communication. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.

Griffin, E. (2006). A first look at communication theory, 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Higer Education.

Hybels, S. & Weaver, R. (1998). Communicating effectively: A definition of Commuinication. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Pearson, J.C. & Nelson, P.E. (2000). An introduction to human communication, understanding and sharing, 8th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

SQ3R reading method


SQ3R reading Method :

SQ3R is a reading strategy formed from its letters:

Survey! Question! Read! Recite! Review!

SQ3R will help you build a framework to understand your reading assignment.


Before you read, Survey the chapter: the title, headings, and subheadings captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps
review questions or teacher-made study guides introductory and concluding paragraphs summary.

Question while you are surveying:

Turn the title, headings, and/or subheadings into questions
Read questions at the end of the chapters or after each subheading
Ask yourself,
“What did my instructor say about this chapter or subject

when it was assigned?”
Ask yourself,
“What do I already know about this subject?”
Note: If it is helpful to you, write out these questions for consideration.


This variation is called SQW3R

When you begin to Read:
Look for answers to the questions you first raised
Answer questions at the beginning or end of chapters or study guides
Reread captions under pictures, graphs, etc.
Note all the underlined, italicized, bold printed words or phrases
Study graphic aids
Reduce your speed for difficult passages
Stop and reread parts which are not clear. Read only a section at a time and recite after each section

Recite after you’ve read a section:
Orally ask yourself questions about what you have just read, or summarize, in your own words, what you read
Take notes from the text but write the information in your own words
Underline or highlight important points you’ve just read

The more senses you use the more likely you are to remember what you read Triple strength learning: Seeing, saying, hearing
Quadruple strength learning: Seeing , saying , hearing, writing!!!
Review: an ongoing process

Day One

After you have read and recited the entire chapter,
write questions in the margins for those points
you have highlighted or underlined.
If you took notes while reciting,
write questions for the notes you have taken
in the left hand margins of your notebook.
Complete the form for a critical reading review

Day Two

Page through the text and/or your notebook to re-acquaint yourself
with the important points.
Cover the right hand column of your text/note-book
and orally ask yourself the questions in the left hand margins.
Orally recite or write the answers from memory.
Develop mnemonic devices for material which need to be memorized.
Make flash cards for those questions which give you difficulty.

Days Three, Four and Five

Alternate between your flash cards and notes and test yourself
(orally or in writing) on the questions you formulated.
Make additional flash cards if necessary.


Using the text and notebook, make a Table of Contents – list all the topics and sub-topics you need to know from the chapter.
From the Table of Contents, make a Study Sheet/ Spatial Map.
Recite the information orally and in your own words as you put the Study Sheet/Map together.
As you have consolidated all the information you need for this chapter, periodically review the Sheet/Map so that at test time
you will not have to cram.


source: studygs.net